Gaganyaan: India’s First Human Spaceflight Programme


Gaganyaan:
India’s First Human Spaceflight Programme

Gaganyaan: India's First Human Spaceflight Programme

Gaganyaan is India’s first human
spaceflight program, with the goal of launching three astronauts into low Earth
orbit for up to seven days by 2025. The Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO) is developing the mission with the assistance of several organisations
and universities.

      
Gaganyaan

      
Human rated LVM3 – HLVM3

      
Orbital Module

      
Crew training for Gaganyaan

Gaganyaan

The Gaganyaan project aims to demonstrate
human spaceflight capabilities by sending a crew of three people into a
400-kilometre orbit for a three-day trip and safely returning them to Earth by
landing in Indian sea waters.

The project is carried out using an ideal
approach that takes into account in-house knowledge, Indian industry
experience, intellectual skills of Indian academia and research institutes, and
cutting-edge technology accessible from foreign organisations. The Gaganyaan
mission will necessitate the use of a human-rated launch vehicle capable of
safely transporting crew to space, a Life Support System capable of providing
an earth-like environment to crew in space, Provision for crew emergency
escape, as well as growing crew management components for crew training,
recuperation, and rehabilitation.

Before carrying out the real Human Space
Flight mission, many precursor flights are planned to demonstrate the
Technology Preparedness Levels. Integrated Air Drop Test (IADT), Pad Abort Test
(PAT), and Test Vehicle (TV) flights are among the demonstration missions. All
systems’ safety and dependability will be shown in unmanned missions preceding
the manned trip.

Human rated LVM3 – HLVM3

LVM3(Launch Vehicle Mk III) rocket – ISRO’s
well-proven and dependable heavy lift launcher – has been selected as the
launch platform for the Gaganyaan mission. It is divided into three stages:
solid, liquid, and cryogenic. All systems in the LVM3 launch vehicle have been
re-configured to suit human rating criteria, and the spacecraft has been dubbed
Human Rated LVM3. HLVM3 will be capable of launching the Orbital Module into a
400 km Low Earth Orbit.

Gaganyaan: India's First Human Spaceflight Programme

HLVM3 includes a Crew Escape System (CES)
driven by a series of rapid acting, high burn rate solid motors that transports
the Crew Module and crew to a safe distance in the event of an emergency on the
launch pad or during the ascent phase.

Orbital Module

Crew Module (CM) and Service Module (SM)
compose the Orbital Module (OM) that will orbit Earth. OM is outfitted with
cutting-edge avionics equipment with appropriate redundancy for human safety.

CM is the crew’s livable habitat with an
Earth-like environment in space. It is double-walled, having a pressurised
metallic inner structure and an unpressurized outer structure with a Thermal
Protection System (TPS). Crew interfaces, human-centric goods, life support
systems, avionics, and deceleration systems are all housed here. It is also
intended for re-entry to safeguard the crew’s safety during the descent until
touchdown.

SM will be utilised to provide critical
assistance to CM while it is in orbit. It is a pressurised structure that
houses a heating system, a propulsion system, power systems, avionics systems,
and deployment mechanisms.

Finally…

Gaganyaan is a watershed moment for India
since it will establish the country’s ability to take humans into space and
return them safely. The successful test flight of the abort system on October
21, 2023, was a critical milestone for the mission, since it proved the crew
escape system’s safety and functionality. ISRO is currently planning for the
mission’s next phase, which will feature the launch of an uncrewed orbital
voyage with a humanoid robot called Vyommitra. The ultimate objective is to
launch three Indian astronauts into low-Earth orbit by 2025, making India the
fourth country in the world to do so.